Blue collar vs white collar dating

Blues with a higher frequency and thus a shorter wavelength gradually look more violet, while those with a lower frequency and a longer wavelength gradually appear more green. Pure blue, in the middle, has a wavelength of nanometres.

Isaac Newton included blue as one of the seven colours in his first description the visible spectrum , He chose seven colours because that was the number of notes in the musical scale, which he believed was related to the optical spectrum.

He included indigo , the hue between blue and violet, as one of the separate colours, though today it is usually considered a hue of blue. Red and blue mixed together form violet, blue and yellow together form green. Mixing all three primary colours together produces a dark grey. From the Renaissance onwards, painters used this system to create their colours.

See RYB colour system. Later, printers discovered that more accurate colours could be created by using combinations of magenta, cyan, yellow and black ink, put onto separate inked plates and then overlaid one at a time onto paper. This method could produce almost all the colours in the spectrum with reasonable accuracy. In the 19th century the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell found a new way of explaining colours, by the wavelength of their light.

He showed that white light could be created by combining red, blue and green light, and that virtually all colours could be made by different combinations of these three colours. His idea, called additive colour or the RGB colour model , is used today to create colours on televisions and computer screens.

The screen is covered by tiny pixels, each with three fluorescent elements for creating red, green and blue light. If the red, blue and green elements all glow at once, the pixel looks white.

As the screen is scanned from behind with electrons, each pixel creates its own designated colour, composing a complete picture on the screen. The projection of primary colour lights on a screen shows secondary colours where two overlap; the combination red, green, and blue each in full intensity makes white. Blue and orange pixels on an LCD television screen. Closeup of the red, green and blue sub-pixels on left.

On the HSV colour wheel , the complement of blue is yellow ; that is, a colour corresponding to an equal mixture of red and green light. On a colour wheel based on traditional colour theory RYB where blue was considered a primary colour, its complementary colour is considered to be orange based on the Munsell colour wheel. These minerals were crushed, ground into powder, and then mixed with a quick-drying binding agent, such as egg yolk tempera painting ; or with a slow-drying oil, such as linseed oil , for oil painting.

To make blue stained glass , cobalt blue cobalt II aluminate: CoAl 2O 4 pigment was mixed with the glass. Other common blue pigments made from minerals are ultramarine NaAl 6Si 24S , cerulean blue primarily cobalt II stanate: Co 2SnO 4 , and Prussian blue milori blue: Natural dyes to colour cloth and tapestries were made from plants.

Woad and true indigo were used to produce indigo dye used to colour fabrics blue or indigo. Since the 18th century, natural blue dyes have largely been replaced by synthetic dyes. In the s, the name was adopted into the proprietary Pantone Matching System PMS to refer to this specific pigment.

Pantone "Reflex Blue" has the particularity of being identified only by this name, and not by a number code. The more it was ground, the lighter the blue colour became.

Azurite , common in Europe and Asia, is produced by the weathering of copper ore deposits. It was crushed and powdered and used as a pigment from ancient times, Natural ultramarine , made by grinding and purifying lapis lazuli, was the finest available blue pigment in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

It was extremely expensive, and in Italian Renaissance art, it was often reserved for the robes of the Virgin Mary. Egyptian blue , the first artificial pigment, created in the third millennium BC in Ancient Egypt by grinding sand, copper and natron , and then heating them.

It was often used in tomb paintings and funereal objects to protect the dead in their afterlife. Ground azurite was often in Renaissance used as a substitute for the much more expensive lapis lazuli. It made a rich blue, but was unstable and could turn dark green over time. Cerulean was created with copper and cobalt oxide , and used to make a sky blue colour.

Like azurite, it could fade or turn green. Indigo dye is made from the woad , Indigofera tinctoria , a plant common in Asia and Africa but little known in Europe until the 15th century. Its importation into Europe revolutionised the colour of clothing. It also became the colour used in blue denim and jeans. Nearly all indigo dye produced today is synthetic. Chemical structure of indigo dye , a widely produced blue dye. Synthetic ultramarine pigment, invented in , has the same chemical composition as natural ultramarine.

It is more vivid than natural ultramarine because the particles are smaller and more uniform in size, and thus distribute the light more evenly. A new synthetic blue created in the s is phthalocyanine , an intense colour widely used for making blue ink, dye , and pigment. When sunlight passes through the atmosphere, the blue wavelengths are scattered more widely by the oxygen and nitrogen molecules, and more blue comes to our eyes.

This effect is called Rayleigh scattering , after Lord Rayleigh , the British physicist who discovered it. It was confirmed by Albert Einstein in Therefore, when looking at the sunset and sunrise, the colour red is more perceptible than any of the other colours. The colour of the sea is also affected by the colour of the sky, reflected by particles in the water; and by algae and plant life in the water, which can make it look green; or by sediment, which can make it look brown.

For example, mountains in the distance often appear blue. This is the effect of atmospheric perspective ; the farther an object is away from the viewer, the less contrast there is between the object and its background colour, which is usually blue. In a painting where different parts of the composition are blue, green and red, the blue will appear to be more distant, and the red closer to the viewer.

The cooler a colour is, the more distant it seems. An example of aerial, or atmospheric perspective. Objects become more blue and lighter in colour the farther they are from the viewer, because of Rayleigh scattering. Under the sea, red and other light with longer wavelengths is absorbed, so white objects appear blue. The deeper you go, the darker the blue becomes. In the open sea, only about one per cent of light penetrates to a depth of metres.

A blue supergiant is even bigger. Blue eyes Blue eyes actually contain no blue pigment. The colour is caused by an effect called Rayleigh scattering , which also makes the sky appear blue. Blue eyes do not actually contain any blue pigment. Eye colour is determined by two factors: The appearance of blue, green, and hazel eyes results from the Rayleigh scattering of light in the stroma, an optical effect similar to what accounts for the blueness of the sky. Eye colour also varies depending on the lighting conditions, especially for lighter-coloured eyes.

Blue eyes are becoming less common among American children. In the US, boys are 35 per cent more likely to have blue eyes than girls. History In the ancient world Close-up of the blue, lapis lazuli inlays used for the irises in the Statue of Ebih-Il , dating to the twenty-fifth century BC, discovered in the temple of Ishtar at Mari Blue was a latecomer among colours used in art and decoration, as well as language and literature. Blue was also not used for dyeing fabric until long after red, ochre, pink and purple.

This is probably due to the perennial difficulty of making good blue dyes and pigments. Lapis lazuli, a semi-precious stone, has been mined in Afghanistan for more than three thousand years, and was exported to all parts of the ancient world.

This is considered the first synthetic pigment. It was particularly used in funeral statuary and figurines and in tomb paintings. Blue was considered a beneficial colour which would protect the dead against evil in the afterlife. Blue dye was also used to colour the cloth in which mummies were wrapped. The Egyptian god Amun could make his skin blue so that he could fly, invisible, across the sky.

Blue could also protect against evil; many people around the Mediterranean still wear a blue amulet, representing the eye of God, to protect them from misfortune. They also added cobalt, which produced a deeper blue, the same blue produced in the Middle Ages in the stained glass windows of the cathedrals of Saint-Denis and Chartres. The Greek word for dark blue, kyaneos, could also mean dark green, violet, black or brown. The ancient Greek word for a light blue, glaukos, also could mean light green, grey, or yellow.

It was not one of the four primary colours for Greek painting described by Pliny the Elder red, yellow, black, and white , but nonetheless it was used as a background colour behind the friezes on Greek temples and to colour the beards of Greek statues. Blue was considered the colour of mourning, and the colour of barbarians. Julius Caesar reported that the Celts and Germans dyed their faces blue to frighten their enemies, and tinted their hair blue when they grew old.

According to Vitruvius , they made dark blue pigment from indigo, and imported Egyptian blue pigment. The walls of Roman villas in Pompeii had frescoes of brilliant blue skies, and blue pigments were found in the shops of colour merchants. A lapis lazuli bowl from Iran End of 3rd, beginning 2nd millennium BC A hippo decorated with aquatic plants, made of faience with a blue glaze, made to resemble lapis lazuli.

The figure is made of faience with a blue glaze, designed to resemble turquoise. A lion against a blue background from the Ishtar Gate of ancient Babylon. In Byzantine art Christ and the Virgin Mary usually wore dark blue or purple. Blue was used as a background colour representing the sky in the magnificent mosaics which decorated Byzantine churches. At certain times in Moorish Spain and other parts of the Islamic world, blue was the colour worn by Christians and Jews, because only Muslims were allowed to wear white and green.

Lapis lazuli pigment was also used to create the rich blues in Persian miniatures. Blue Byzantine mosaic ceiling representing the night sky in the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna , Italy 5th century. Blue mosaic in the cloak of Christ in the Hagia Sophia church in Istanbul 13th century.


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