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Ekrem Spahic etc. Anybody wishing to study the history of Islamic culture in Bosnia-Herzegovina seriously should consult numerous works of Hamdija Kresevljakovic , an outstanding Muslim Croat, member of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Zagreb, author of an important monograph about history of Croatian literature in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

For more information see [ Karihman ]. Hrvati islamske vjere We can document the equivalence of the name of Bosniak and Hrvat during many centuries, until the Yugoslav period see below. It seems that the final and almost complete national individualization of Muslim Slavs took place only during the tragedy they experienced during the Serbian large-scale aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period of the aggression against BiH started already in October by the slaughter of the Croats in the Herzegovinian village of Ravno.

This aggression found Muslim officials totally unprepared. Of course, the national individualization was strengthened also during the tragic conflict with the Croats in , which was one of the well prepared results of the Serbian aggression. The equivalence of the name of Bosniak and Croat in the early period of the Ottoman occupation of Bosnia is documented by the famous Turkish historian Aali in his work Knhulahbar, also known as Tarihi Aali.

He gave the following description of the properties of Croatian tribe as he calls it in Bosnia: As regards the tribe of the Croats, which is assigned to the river Bosna, their character is reflected in their cheerful mood; throughout Bosnia they are also known according to that river Then follows an interesting passage describing virtues of the Croats in Bosnia. Bossnjaci i Hercegovci u Islamskoj knjizzevnosti: SSto se ticce plemena Hrvata, koje se pripisuje rijeci Bosni, njihov se znaccaj odrazuje u veseloj naravi; oni su po Bosni poznati i po tekuchoj rijeci prozvati [dakle Bossnjaci].

Dussa im je ccista, a lice svijetlo; vechinom su stasiti i prostodussni - njihovi likovi kao znaccajevi naginju pravednosti. Golobradi mladichi i lijepi momci poznati su na daleko po pokrajinama radi naoccitosti i ponositosti, a daroviti spisatelji kao umni i misaoni ljudi. Uzrok je ovo, ssto je Bog - koji se uzvisuje i uzdizze - u osmanlijskoj drzzavi podigao vrijednost tome hvaljenom narodu dostojanstvom i ccast njegove sreche uzvisio kao visoki uzrast i poletnu dussu, jer se meddu njima nasilnika malo nalazi.

Vechina onih, koji su dossli do visokih polozzaja u Turskoj drzzavi odlikuju se veledussjem to jest: Neustrassivi su u boju i na mejdanu, a u drusstvu, gdje se uzziva i pije, prostodussni. Obiccno su prijazni, dobrochudni i ljubazni. Osobito se odlikuje ovo pleme vanrednom ljepotom i iznimnim uzrastom Bez sumnje Bossnjaci, koji se pribrajaju hrvatskom narodu, odlikuju se kao prosti vojnici dobrotom i pobozznosti, kao age i zapovjednici obrazovanosschu i vrlinom; ako doddu do ccasti velikih vezira, u upravi su dobrochudni, ponosni i pravedni, da ih velikassi hvale i odliccni umnici slave.

Islam left valuable written and architectural monuments, like in Spain for instance. For instance in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, there had been several hundred mosques from the Turkish time, out of which only one survived. Probably the most interesting writings about the life in Ottoman Empire in the 16th century are numerous works published by Bartol Gyurgieuvits , who spent there 13 years as a slave.

In the province of Molise in central Italy there is a small Croatian enclave about 4, people , living today in several villages, inhabited in 15 villages in the 16th century by the Croats fleeing before the Turks. They preserved their ethnic identity and language even today. Since the 16th century a similar enclave has existed near Bratislava in Slovakia.

The largest Croatian community of exiles dating from that period is in the area of Gradisce Burgenland in Austria and Hungary.

The family name Horwath and its variations is also very common in Austria see the telephone book in Vienna. The most famous descendant of Gradisce Croats is without any doubt Joseph Haydn. In Slovenian part of Istria, near Italian border east of Trieste, there is the village of Hrvatini literally - Croats. Also in Croatian part of Istria, north-east of Zminj, there is the village of Hrvatin.

Several Istrian villages have names that are obviously related to those Croats who had to escape before the Turks from the region Lika and Krbava. Additional information about centuries old Croatian emigration in Czechia and Slovakia can be obtained here: Croatian Minority in Slovakia Today there are several tens of thousands of Croats living in about fifty settlements in the region of Gradisce, i. Eisenstadt about two thirds and in Vienna one third.

Specialists estimate that the overall number of Croatian settlements in these regions in the 16th century was as many as to ! In the 16th century in the area around Bratislava in Slovakia there were about sixty Croatian settlements. See Sanja Vulic, Bernardina Petrovic: Among descendants of the Croats in Italy we should mention Pope Sixto V he was the Pope from to , who spoke Croatian at home.

It is estimated that until the 18th century there were about two million Croats who had been either exiled or taken as slaves to Turkey. Among the Bosnian Catholics there was a large number of Cryptocatholics, i. Children were circumcised, but secretly baptized as well. The most famous collection is in Radimlja in Herzegovina: Here are a few stechak monuments in the vicinity of Srebrenica in eastern Bosnia: In the middle stechak one can see a lily, which is a very old symbol of Bosnia.

In Croatia there are also numerous stechak monuments. Some of them are even near the towns of Knin, Karlovac Generalski stol , and in Slavonia, near the towns of Pozega and Pakrac. Even today Croatian women in some parts of Bosnia tattoo their hands with Christian symbols and stechak ornaments. This very old custom, used exclusively among Catholic Christians, had a special meaning in the period of the Ottoman occupation.

In this way, by wearing indelible signs of their Christian religion, the forced conversion to Islam has been prevented. However, the custom itself is much older. For example, a Greek historian Strabo 1st century BC mentions tattooing among inhabitants of this area. For more information see an article by Ciro Truhelka: Moriz Hoernes, Vierter Band, Wien Bosnian Catholic Croats tattoo their hands and other visible parts of body with Christian symbols usually with a small cross , like brow, cheeks, wrist, or below neck.

This can be seen even today, not only in middle Bosnia, but also among exiled Bosnian women living in Zagreb. Katarina Vukcic-Kosaca , the last Queen of Bosnia, ardent Catholic, wife of the Bosnian King Stjepan Tomasevic , is still one of the most beloved personalities among the Croats living in Bosnia. When Bosnia fell under the Ottoman rule in , her two children a boy and a girl had been taken to slavery and educated in the spirit of Islam, her husband decapitated.

She managed to escape to Dubrovnik , and then to Rome, where she had been deeply involved in the humanitarian activity of the Franciscan community Aracoeli becoming Franciscan Tertiary herself, to help Bosnian Croats under the Turkish rule. She built a church of St. Katarina in a picturesque Bosnian city of Jajce totally destroyed by the Serbs in Despite her very difficult position, she had always been treated as a Queen of Bosnia in official circles.

Her grave in the Aracoeli church in Rome had a Croatian Cyrillic inscription until with the coat of arms of the old Bosnian Kingdom and of the Kosaca family , when it had been replaced by translation into Latin. Even today, after more than five centuries, Croatian women wear black costumes in some parts of Bosnia in remembrance to her tragic life and kindness towards poor people.

The seat of Bosnian kings in 14th and 15th centuries was Bobovac, about 50 km north of Sarajevo. Its walls were about meters long. Many documents are preserved mentioning Bobovac. It fell under the Turks in , which meant the fall of mediaeval Bosnian state. After the catastrophic defeat of the Serbs in the Kosovo field in , on whose side both Croatian forces from Bosnia and Albanian troops had also participated, Serbia became a vassal state to the Turkish Ottoman Empire.

The slaughter of the Croatian nobility greatly reduced the economic power of the Croatian lands for the centuries to come. It was described in the "Second Novi Glagolitic breviary" by rev.

Martinac in see a column from this breviary on the photo. Marko Marulic wrote his famous Prayer against the Turks. An extensive collection of dozens of speeches "against the Turks" Orationes contra Turcas from the middle of the 15th century to the end of the 16th century can be seen in [ Gligo ], on pp.

Several of these speeches have been delivered by Croatian noblemen, writers and clergy in front of Popes, as well as in front of high dignitaries of various European states. These speeches are important and indelible historical fact. They do not have to have any influence on good contemporary relations between Croatian and Turkey. In the 16th century the Turks started settling down Serbian population in the emptied regions previously inhabited by the Croatian Catholics. The representatives of the Serbian Orthodox Church had the privilege to collect taxes from the Croatian Catholics.

In this way the Serbs wanted to include the Catholics into the Orthodox Church, which was under the control of the Turks the residence of the Serbian Patriarch was in Constantinople in present-day Turkey.

Let us mention by the way that the animosity of the Orthodox Christians against Catholics was strengthened first in Greece and then in Serbia after the Crusaders had occupied Constantinople and formed the Latin Empire Before the Turkish penetration in the 15th century there were Catholic churches in Bosnia, about 20 Catholic monasteries, and not a single Serbian Orthodox church.

Several Catholic orders were present in Bosnia: Benedictines, Paulines, and above all Franciscans. Immediately after the arrival of the Turks a large number of Serbian Orthodox churches was built up, many of them on the ruins of Catholic churches. And the religion was one of the decisive factors in the national affiliation of the people in Bosnia.

The lovely town of Jajce on river Vrbas was in Croatia, as well the town of Bihac. The territories enclosed by three rivers - Sava, Una and Vrbas - bore the name of the Turkish Croatia in the European literature of 18th and 19th century. The name was given by the Turks, and it was accepted by Austrian, Italian, German and Dutch cartographers.

It was only in that upon insistance of the Valachian part of the population the name of Turkish Croatia was abolished in favor of the new name - Bosanska Krajina Bosnian Frontier. This name appears on maps for the first time in Source of the map Turska Hrvatska.

Below is the same map with more details, slightly rotated Croatie Turc in French , part of a map by P. Du Val from Les confins des Chrestiens et des Trucs.

Leonard near Okic in the vicinity of Samobor. He has discovered very old and important muniment from which mentions Stipan from old Dubrovnik , Bishop of Modrus, written in the Glagolitic Script.

Here Old Dubrovnik is a town which existed in Middle Bosnia, north of Sarajevo, founded by merchants from the famous Dubrovnik.

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Total 2 comments.
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